A lot of photographers think that the colour space option of ‘sRGB’ or ‘Adobe RGB’ on the back of their camera is used to set the colourspace of their camera.
It doesn’t do that.
The colourspace settings are only for the jpegs that are produced in-camera.
RAW data is unaffected. Indeed, RAW can’t be modified. Think of RAW as a 'negative’ that comes out of an old film camera. The negative can never be changed once created.
So the ‘Adobe RGB and sRGB’ settings on the back of your camera are just for any jpegs that the camera ‘generates’ from the RAW capture .
If you are shooting RAW all the time, then you don’t need to worry about colourspaces while shooting.
Q. So when is the colourspace important then?
A. When you open your RAW files
When you open (or import), you are translating, converting the content of your RAW file into the host software’s format. In Photoshop’s case, you always go through the Adobe Camera Raw software before the image is available in Photoshop. It has to go through this translation stage.
The Raw Converter is where you can set the colourspace and it’s really important to pick a colourspace large enough to contain all the data that your RAW file has.
Pro Photo is the colourspace to choose, because it is a large enough container - much larger than Adobe RGB, and most likely much larger than any colours your camera can record.
If you choose Adobe RGB you may be clipping (throwing away) some of the colours that your camera can reproduce, because your camera may be capable of recording colours outside of the Adobe RGB colourspace.
The best option is to open up your camera files in Pro Photo. It’s a larger colour space and won’t clip the data. You’ll keep all of the colours in your file.
Q. But doesn’t the RAW format have it’s own colourspace?
A. Technically speaking there is a lot of splitting hairs about this. Some say no, some say yes.
The camera has its own proprietary way of recording the data, and this ‘specification’ is given to the developers who write the RAW converter engine. It’s up to them how they translate the information and this is why RAW converters vary (please note this is a serious oversimplification here).
Q. Why keep all the colours if your monitor or printer uses a smaller colour space?
A. Because the more data you have while editing, the better
Your camera is a glorified computer that just stores numbers. Photoshop just reads numbers, and when you alter a photograph you are truncating those numbers. It follows then, that the more data you have, the less chance you have in introducing weird problems into the file when you edit or adjust it in any way.
Although you cannot see all the colours present in Pro Photo because your monitor maybe has a smaller effective gamut, you still get the benefit of having more data to play with while editing.
The colourspace settings on the back of your camera are just for the jpegs it ‘generates’ from the RAW files.
The RAW files are unaffected and can’t be changed.
When you import a RAW file into a photo editing program, it has to get ‘converted’ or translated. This is when you need to choose a colourspace
Choose a large colourspace otherwise you may truncate colour data